Integrated Tape – The Cassette Gazette Page 12

written by Matthew Reed

The Cassette Gazette was a 1983 one issue advertising newsletter that was a joint production of Lemons Tech and KWIK Software. The Gazette described the products sold by the two companies, mixed in with operational advice and interesting facts about using cassettes with your TRS-80. It appears to have been written by Wayne Lemons, the founder of Lemons Tech. The Gazette is reproduced here page by page with permission from Wayne Lemons' family.

Integrated Tape Cassette Operating Systems for TRS-80 Model I, III, 4

“IT” is a machine code enhancement to Level II that properly supports your cassette recorder, and also adds many non-tape related ‘convenience’ features. The added commands are easy to learn, simple to use, and operate directly from Level II… no ‘USER’ calls or cumbersome new formats are needed. The various versions of “IT” (for Model I, III/4) include the following capabilities and features:

  • Faster tape storage: 2200 baud for Model III/4… select 1000-3000 baud for Model I.
  • Save, Load, Verify, Search, Test-Read, and Catalog BASIC programs… also any block of memory (core image) as a user-stored data block or as an executable machine code program.
  • Enhanced error-testing and improved tape storage format protect from ‘garbage loads’.
  • Chain-load (concatenate, add-on) BASIC programs from tape and memory.
  • High-speed save/load of program-generated ‘DATA’ files (PRINT#-1, etc.) with no reprogramming hassle… you need only to add a simple instruction to “open” and “close” each DATA file.
  • Allows a ‘pseudo-name’ for each DATA file, so the tape can be ‘searched’ for that file.
  • Direct Save, Load, & Verify of ‘numeric’ array contents by simple commands.
  • High-speed save/load of literal (string) arrays, as KWIK ‘DATA’ files.
  • Special ‘lock-on’ leaders and graphic guide for easy setting of recorder playback volume.
  • Long program names (up to 32 characters), with password protection and/or comments, if desired
  • Easy conversion… load standard program with CLOAD, then save at high baud as KWIK program.
  • Checks open memory before each Load or Chain-Load… won’t load if program is too long.
  • All of the new commands added by IT can also be used as instructions in a BASIC program.
  • Direct Save/Load of screen display to/from tape by simple command.
  • Makes silent ‘gaps’ between programs when taped, and BREAK key is active while taping.
  • Adjustable slowdown of scroll speed for LISTing BASIC programs.
  • Keyboard on/off control of recorder motor eliminates need for ‘plug-pulling’.
  • There are many copies of the program on your master tape (typically, from 10 to 15).

K1 Series… IT from Model I, Level II, 16K-48K

Has all the standard IT features, PLUS:

  • Fully supports dual-recorder operations for systems with Radio Shack Expansion Interface.
  • Both command and “Three-key” feature for tape save/load of screen, and for printing the screen. (But doesn’t print needless spaces!)
  • High-RAM versions are compatible with Microsoft Level III or with Disk BASIC.
  • Takes about 2600 bytes of memory.


K1A Located in low user memory, works with 16K, 32K, or 48K memory.
K1A16 Located at the high end of 16K memory; Compatible with Microsoft "Level III".
K1A32 Located near the high end of 32K memory; Compatible with Microsoft "Level III" or with Disk BASIC.
K1A48 Same as K1A32, but for 48K memory.

K3 Series… for the Model III/4, Level II, 16K-48K

Takes about 2450 bytes. Has all the standard IT features listed above, plus simple commands to:

  • Change standard Cassette baud Hi/Low.
  • Set real-time clock.
  • Set calendar date.
  • Turn clock display on/off.
  • Enable/disable BREAK key.
  • Select optimum recorder parameters.


K3A Located in low user memory, works with 16K, 32K, or 48K memory.
K3A16 Located at the high end of 16K memory.
K3A32 Located near the high end of 32K memory.
K3A48 Located near the high end of 48K memory.

NOTE: “IT” replaces KWICOS or KOS3. On any version of “IT”, registered KWICOS or KOS3 owners may take an automatic $13 discount, or return KWICOS/KOS3 for $19 credit.


“KSP1” (for Model I only)

Your KWINKed copies of the classic tape-based word processor will KWIK-load at up to 3000 baud… but that doesn’t help the slow 500 baud TEXT storage. We can now offer a patch that gives you the option of ‘standard 500’ or 1000/3000 baud transfer rates for the Save/Verify/Load of your text. It also allows sending printer control codes as special BREAK (format) commands and corrects a few other deficiencies. Not a cure-all… but if you tape much SCRIPSIT text and have a modern printer, KSP1 is worth much more than only… $12 US P.Pd.


When you have KWICOS in your Model I (or KOS3 in Model III), just enter ‘NAME’ and the CTR motor starts running. Hit BREAK and it turns off again.

Be a self-made man if you want… just make sure you aren’t the product of unskilled labor.


Unfortunately, some machine code programs (especially games) are ‘protected’ by not being true SYSTEM programs, even though they load in with the ‘SYSTEM’ command. These programs start with a special ‘loader’ section, then have the main part of the program written in some special format devised by the author. After the ‘loader’ is loaded in, it takes over from the ROM routines and loads in the main program. In general, these protected machine code programs can be copied only by direct byte-by-byte methods and in particular cannot be directly duplicated at a higher baud rate.

Our two utilities KWINK and KLOAN will process almost any standard format SYSTEM program, but will normally reject protected program with the error message “NOT A SYSTEM PROGRAM”.


You don’t have to worry about copying your KWICOS or KOS3 for backup. When you load it a prompt comes up for (R)UN or (B)ACKUP. Use backup copies for everyday work and save the original.

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Categories: Cassette Gazette